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Chemical Composition and Fuel Properties of Alternative Jet Fuels

Pires, A., Han, Y., Kramlich, J., & Garcia-Perez, M.  (2018). Chemical Composition and Fuel Properties of Alternative Jet Fuels. BioResources, 13(2):2632-2657.  https://doi.org/10.15376/biores.13.2.2632-2657


The chemical composition and fuel properties of nine alternative jet fuels (named as AJF 1-9) and three commercial jet fuels (named as CJF 1, 2 and 3) are reported in this work. The fuels were characterized by GC/MS, SEP-GC/MS (for quantification of oxygenated molecules), viscosity, density, water content, water solubility at 0 °C, carbonyl content, total acid number, elemental composition, calorific value, flash point, differential scanning calorimetry, and surface tension. The content of n-paraffins, iso-paraffins, olefins, naphthenes, and aromatics are reported. The fuel rich in aromatics (AJF 1) has the highest density (0.90 g/mL), C content (over 90 wt. %), and water solubility, lowest calorific value, and high surface tension. The fuels with high contents of light molecules have the lowest flash points (AJFs 1, 6, and 8). AJF 2 is the most viscous fuel due to the presence of a single relatively heavy molecule. The content of oxygenated compounds measured was in all the cases very low and comparable with the amount found in commercial jet fuels. Overall, these fuels comply with most of ASTM requirements and offer opportunities to develop specialized products.