The long-term exposure to fine particulate matter less than 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5) has been associated with respiratory and cardiopulmonary health impacts. Similar to all combustion sources, aircraft engines produce PM2.5 emissions. The particles that are in a solid state at the engine exit plane are defined as non-volatile particulate matter (nvPM). In addition to causing human health impacts, these emissions contribute to aviation’s climate impact through (i) the direct warming effect of black carbon and (ii) by providing a surface upon which contrail ice crystals may form. This project sets out to support the FAA decision-making process in developing an nvPM standard to reduce nvPM emissions and provides independent assessments in preparation of the related CAEP process. In particular, it will:
- Develop tools to be used in cost/benefit analyses of a potential nvPM standard including economic, climate, air quality, and noise impacts.
- Assess nvPM emissions from representative engines and evaluate the mapping of these engines to a broader set of engine/airframe combinations accounting for variations in engine technologies with a view of comparing proposed metrics systems.
- Investigate technology responses to different nvPM metrics and stringency options.
- Evaluate proposed fuel sensitivity corrections, ambient conditions corrections, and nvPM modeling approaches in collaboration with other FAA-sponsored researchers.